Asthma

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Asthma is a chronic disease which involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyper responsiveness.There is no cure for asthma. However, with proper education, treatment, and management, asthma can be controlled and the severity and frequency of asthma attacks can be decreased.

The mechanism of inflammation in asthma may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and the presence of airway edema and mucus secretion also contributes to airflow obstruction and bronchial reactivity. Varying degrees of mononuclear cell and eosinophil infiltration, mucus hypersecretion, desquamation of the epithelium, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and airway remodeling are present.
Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The mechanisms involved include direct stimulation of airway smooth muscle and indirect stimulation by pharmacologically active substances from mediator-secreting cells such as mast cells or nonmyelinated sensory neurons. The degree of airway hyperresponsiveness generally correlates with the clinical severity of asthma.

Signs and symptoms of asthma include the following:
Wheezing
Coughing
Shortness of breath
Chest tightness/pain

Diagnosis 

  • Medical and Family Histories- history of asthma and allergies 
  • Physical Exam-
  •  Lung Function Test  
  • Chest X ray

Management
The ultimate goal is to prevent symptoms, minimize morbidity, and prevent functional and psychological morbidity to provide a healthy lifestyle.

Medications for controlling an asthma attack (quick-relief medications)  – Short-acting beta-agonists are a type of quick-relief medications that are commonly used for asthma and provide prompt relief during an asthma attack.

Inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs), leukotriene modifiers, and immunomodulators are some of the long-term asthma medications.

 

Know the triggers and  avoid them.

Quit Smoking

Do not use nonprescription inhalers

Take only the medications your doctor has prescribed

If the medication is not working, consult your doctor and do not take more than you have been advised.

 

 

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